# Chapter 2 MRI

## 2.1 MRI Study Material List

*Acronyms:*

```
NMR = Nuclear Magnetic Resonance
MRI = Magnetic Resonance Imaging
MRS = Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
```

## 2.2 Selected Books for MRI & NMR

*Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Physical Principles and Sequence Design*

Book `RW Brown, YCN Cheng, EM Haacke, MR Thompson, R Venkatesan`

- Excellent text that balances mathematical strictness and physics concepts with intuitional and technical explanations. Specific topics, such as fast spin echo, are treated to a lesser extent than desirable; only a few pages about MR spectroscopy

*Handbook of MRI Pulse Sequences*

Book `MA Bernstein, KF King and XJ Zhou`

- Outstanding coverage of MR imaging pulse sequences and their various elements, such as radiofrequency (RF) pulses and gradients

*MRI from Proton to Picture*

Book `DW McRobbie, EA Moore, MJ Graves, MR Prince`

- Comprehensive introduction to the basics of MR practice and theory; very comprehendible and with superb illustrations; one chapter about MR spectroscopy

*Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Theory and Practice*

Book `MT Vlaardingerbroek, JA den Boer`

- Very good book, though not thought for someone, who makes his/her first acquaintance with MRI (as is also stated in its preface; some common nomenclature with Haacke’s book)

*MRI: The Basics*

Book `RH Hashemi, WG Bradley, CJ Lisanti`

- Very introductory text that summarizes most important concepts of MRI; a suitable tool to obtain a first overview of MRI principles, but does not provide in-depth insight

*Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Physical Principles and Applications*

Book `V Kuperman`

*NMR Imaging in Biomedicine*

Book `PG Morris, P Mansfield`

- Classic textbook with elegant treatment of NMR techniques, though too involved for a beginner.

*The Principles of Nuclear Magnetism*

Book `A Abragam`

- Standard text for quantum mechanical treatment of nuclear magnetism; requires good knowledge of quantum mechanics

## 2.3 Selected Papers

One of the first papers about the basic concepts of NMR:

`F Bloch, Nuclear induction`

^{1}A good introduction to basic NMR signal detection:

`WS Hinshaw and AH Lent, An introduction to NMR imaging: From the Bloch equation to the imaging equation`

^{2}The fundamental concept of an echo is introduced in:

`EL Hahn, Spin Echoes`

^{3}Basic k-space concepts are discussed in:

`DB Twieg, The k-trajectory formulation of the NMR imaging process with applications in analysis and synthesis of imaging methods`

^{4}The alternate phase encoding scheme for Fourier imaging was introduced in:

`A Kumar, D Welti, and RR Ernst, NMR Fourier Zeugmatography`

^{5}A theory of small tip-angle approximation of viewing slice selection in k-space was developed in:

`J Pauly, D Nishimura, and A Macovski, A k-space analysis of small tip angle excitation`

^{6}Superb and detailed review of the fast spin echo (FSE) sequence together with an introduction to MRI:

`J Listerud, S Einstein, E Outwater, and HY Kressel, First principles of fast spin echo`

^{7}Fast gradient echo imaging is discussed in:

`P van der Meulen, JP Groen, and JJ Cuppen, Very fast MR imaging by field echoes and small angle excitation`

^{8}Overview of contrast and resolution in MRI:

`RT Constable and RM Henkelman, Contrast, resolution, and detectability in MR imaging`

^{9}

*References*

- F. Bloch, “Nuclear induction,” Physical Review, vol. 70, pp. 460-74, 1946.
- W. S. Hinshaw and A. H. Lent, “An introduction to NMR imaging: From the Bloch equation to the imaging equation,” Proceedings of the IEEE, vol. 71, pp. 338-50, 1982.
- E. L. Hahn, “Spin Echoes,” Physical Review, vol. 80, pp. 580, 1950.
- D. B. Twieg, “The k-trajectory formulation of the NMR imaging process with applications in analysis and synthesis of imaging methods,” Medical Physics, vol. 10, pp. 610-21, 1983.
- A. Kumar, D. Welti, and R. R. Ernst, “NMR Fourier Zeugmatography,” Journal of Magnetic Resonance, vol. 18, pp. 69-83, 1975.
- J. Pauly, D. Nishimura, and A. Macovski, “A k-space analysis of small tip angle excitation,” Journal of Magnetic Resonance, vol. 81, pp. 43-56, 1989.
- J. Listerud, S. Einstein, E. Outwater, and H. Y. Kressel, “First principles of fast spin echo,” Magnetic Resonance Quarterly, vol. 8, pp. 199-244, 1992
- P. van der Meulen, J. P. Groen, and J. J. Cuppen, “Very fast MR imaging by field echoes and small angle excitation,” Magnetic Resonance Imaging, vol. 3, pp. 297-9, 1985.
- R. T. Constable and R. M. Henkelman, “Contrast, resolution, and detectability in MR imaging,” Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography, vol. 15, pp. 297-303, 1991.

## 2.4 Web links

**Here are some web links that lead to tutorials or introductory material for MRI & MRS:**

`The Basics of NMR`

by Hornak with animations, intended for beginners. Online book`The Basics of MRI`

by Hornak with nice animations, intended for beginners. Online book`Introduction to MRI`

Link`MRI Physics`

put simply; some links to educational topics about MRI, e.g. MRI basics text Link